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Veterinary Science Unit 5
Veterinary Science Unit 5
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Livestock Skeletal Systems
The skeletal system of mammal is composed of bones, cartilage, teeth, and joints.
Skeleton of Horse
Formation of Bone
Cartilage is a tough connective tissue that is flexible and elastic.
Bones are composed of calcium compounds and a gelatin-like protein called ossein.
Bones are living structures containing blood and lymph vessels and nerve fibers.
Bones grow and repair themselves if damaged.
Some bones have a hollow center that is filled with marrow.
Bone marrow may be red, yellow, white, or gelatinous.
The type of marrow found in bones is to some degree a function of the age of the animal.
Red marrow is the type that forms blood cells and may be the only type found in animals with short life spans.
The other types of marrow tend to form in animals with life spans greater than ten years.
Functions of the Skeletal System
The functions of the skeletal system are to provide form, protection, support, and strength for the body.
With the muscles attached, the bones of the skeleton act as levers permitting the animals to move.
The bones store minerals and the bone marrow produces blood cells.
Types of Skeletal Systems
Skeletal systems may be rigid or hydraulic.
There are two types of rigid systems: endoskeleton and exoskeleton.
The endoskeleton is found on the inside of the body.
The exoskeleton is typically a hard shell on the outside of the body.
Kinds of Bones
The two kinds of bone material, cancellous and compact, are based on structure.
Bones may be divided into four classifications based on shape: long, short, flat, and irregular.
Long bones: humerus, radius, ulna, metacarpals, first and second phalanx, femur, tibia, metatarsus
Short bones: digital sesamoid bones, patella, tarsus
Parts of the Skeletal System
The three components of the skeletal system are the axial skeleton, pectoral limb, and pelvic limb.
The skull, vertebral column, and rib cage are the main parts of the axial skeleton.
The pectoral limbs are the front legs of the animal and the pelvic limbs are the hind legs.
Joints of the Skeleton
Three types of joints are found in the skeleton of an animal: synarthroses or fibrous joints; amphiarthroses or cartilaginous joints; and diarthroses or synovial joints.
Synarthroses or fibrous joints generally do not permit any type of movement.
The bones of the skull are an example of this joint.
The vertebra are joined by the amphiarthroses joints.
These joints consist of discs of a fibrous cartilage that separates and cushions the vertebrae, allowing very limited movement.
Skeleton of cow
Avian bones tend to be thinner, harder, and more brittle than mammalian bones
Long bones have more length than width and are generally cylindrical in shape
Parts of Bone
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